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What are the steps in the pathway of signal transduction?

• Step 1 = hormone/ligand binding to receptor to in itiate/trigger/induce signaling OR signal reception • Step 2 = an intracellular cascade that transduc es/amplifies/transfers the signal from plasma membrane to nucleus (or other cellular effector s) • Step 3 = transcription/expression of target genes is stimulated/repressed

How do multiple steps in a pathway amplify a signal?

Firstly, multiple steps may greatly amplify a signal. If some of the molecules in a pathway transmit the signal to numerous molecules at the next step in the series, the result can be a large number of activated molecules at the end of the pathway.

What is a simplified model of the epinephrine signaling pathway?

A simplified model of the epinephrine signaling pathway is represented in Figure 1. Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cyclic AMP to a different molecule.

What are the second messengers in a signal pathway?

Many pathways involve second messengers, small, non-protein molecules that pass along a signal initiated by the binding of a ligand (the “first messenger”) to its receptor. Second messengers include ions; cyclic AMP (cAMP), a derivative of ATP; and inositol phosphates, which are made from phospholipids.

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