Keyword Analysis & Research: downstream vs upstream biology


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Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between upstream and downstream DNA?

With regard to the reference site, the region towards the 5’ end of the RNA strand is known as upstream RNA whereas region towards the 3’ end is known as downstream RNA. However, in DNA, there are two strands that run in both directions 5’ to 3’ and 3’ to 5’. Hence, the difference between upstream and downstream DNA is complicated.

What is upstream and downstream of a factor?

This happens either by signalling pathways and also on the gene expression level (how much of the factor is available). So everything what regulates this factor is called upstream (look at the image below). Everything which is regulated by our factor (other genes) is located downstream of it.

What is upstream extracellular signaling?

Upstream extracellular signaling transduce a variety of intracellular cascades. [1] Receptors and ligands are common upstream signaling molecules that dictate the downstream elements of the signal pathway. A plethora of different factors affect which ligands bind to which receptors and the downstream cellular response that they initiate.

What is upstream processing?

In short, upstream processing is everything related to scalable production of the cells and, consequently the product. For the production of biopharmaceuticals microbial cultures and mammalian cells are typically used. Microbial cultures are appropriate for producing small molecules, such as peptides and enzymes.

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